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WEBINARS @ CENTER FOR ION BEAM APPLICATIONS (CIBA)
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE

Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) Technique

A charged particle with energy higher than 10 eV (i.e., charged particulate ionizing radiation) passing through a material deposits energy mainly through Coulomb interactions with the electrons within the absorber atoms [ 1,2,3]. If the primary charged particles are electrons, a large fraction of their energy can be lost in a single interaction, and their trajectories within the material are very tortuous because their mass is equal to that of the orbital electrons with which they are interacting.
Also in the case of energetic (MeV) ions, most of their energy is lost in collisions with the atomic electrons; the interactions with the atomic nuclei occur much more rarely. Therefore, the ion undergoes a huge number of interactions and gradually loses its kinetic energy: the net effect is a gradual decrease of its velocity until the particle is stopped. The range of MeV light ions in matter is mainly determined by the electron stopping power (i.e., the average energy loss of the ion per unit path length) and depends on both the ion and target masses, atomic number, and ion velocity; for MeV light (H or He) ions, it extends to distances of the order of tens of micrometers.
Moreover, because of the high ion/electron mass ratio, the trajectories of MeV ions undergo few large angle scattering interactions with the sample nuclei owing to their high momentum; accordingly, ion trajectories are nearly straight lines until they are close to the end of their range, where the nuclear stopping cross section becomes no more negligible.
Monte Carlo simulators [4] of ion energy loss such as stopping range in matter (SRIM) are readily available for estimating the depthwise energy-loss profie of an MeV ion. The interaction of the primary ions with the atoms in the material induces the release of energetic electrons (delta rays) with eV to keV energy, that subsequently lose their energy through the interaction with the orbital atomic electrons.
In a semiconductor, the overall significant effect is the production of many electron-hole pairs (EHPs).
The net result of such a process is the generation of a plasma volume along the ion track, with a submicrometer radial extension and a characteristic cone shape due to the fact that, as the ion slows down, delta rays become less energetic, and the generation volume collapses at the end of ion range.
According to the semiempirical model of Klein [5], the amount of energy available to create EHPs is largely independent of both the energy and type of the ionizing radiation, and the average energy required to produce one electron-hole pair is of the order of few eV (3.62 eV at 300 K in Si) and is linearly related to the semiconductor bandgap.
In summary, the interaction of a single MeV ion with a semiconductor material generates a high-density volume of free carriers along the ion trajectory, which is nearly a straight line, with a typical energy-loss profile, known as Bragg curve, peaked at the end of the ion range.
Due to the high number of EHPs created, a measurable charge pulse can be extracted from each ion strike and processed by an external circuit, which allows the generation of a histogram of pulse heights (the pulse height spectrum). In case of monoenergetic radiation, the counts are distributed around an average pulse height which is called the peak centroid. The position of the peak centroid is proportional to the measured charge at the electrode; the ratio of such a charge and the charge generated by ionization is the charge collection efficiency (CCE), which is the most important parameter used to characterize electronic devices, in particular semiconductor detectors [6,7].
The electronic response of a semiconductor to the irradiation of a single MeV ion is a function of the generation profile and of the mechanism of charge-pulse formation: the former depends on ion energy and mass and on the material structure and composition; the latter depends on the electric potential distribution and on the transport properties of free carriers in the material.
As a consequence, if a monochromatic ion probe is provided by an MeV ion accelerator, the measurement of charge pulses provides valuable information on the electronic characteristics of semiconductors. Moreover, these informations are greatly enhanced if the MeV ion beams are focused and raster scanned over the surface of the specimen. In fact, the knowledge of the ion strike position combined with the almost straight ion trajectory, the large analytical depth, which can be modulated as function of ion energy and mass and the submicrometer radial extent of the charge carrier generation volume, allows the electronic features of semiconductors to be spatially resolved at the micrometer level.
These are, in summary, the main features of the ion beam induced charge (IBIC) microscopy, which has found widespread applications since the early 1990s [8] for the characterization of electronic materials and devices, with considerable research activities carried out in many laboratories, as testifed by the numerous papers published in journals as Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research and dedicated sessions in international conferences as the International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications [9].

Bibliography

  1. Handbook of modern ion beam materials analysis, 2nd edition, Y. Wang, M. Nastasi editors, Materials Research Society, Warrendale, Pennsylvania, 2009.
  2. G.F.Knoll,Radiation Detection and Measurements, 3rd Edition, Wiley, New York, 2000.
  3. M. B.H. Breese, D. N. Jamieson, P. J.C. King,Materials Analysis Using a Nuclear Microprobe, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0 9780471106081, 1996.
  4. J. F. Ziegler, M.D. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack,2010 SRIM - The stopping and range of ions in matter, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research , Vol. 268, pp. 1818-1823, 2010.
  5. C.A. Klein, Bandgap dependence and related features of radiation ionization energies in semiconductors, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 39, n. 4, pp. 2029-2038, 1968.
  6. M.B.H. Breese, A review of ion beam induced charge microscopy for integrated circuit analysis, Material Science and Engineering, Vol. B42, pp. 67-76, 1996
  7. M.B.H. Breese, E. Vittone, G. Vizkelethy, P.J. Sellin, A review of ion beam induced charge microscopy, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, Vol. 264, pp. 345-360, 2007.
  8. M. B. H. Breese, P. J. C. King, G. W. Grime, F. Watt, Microcircuit imaging using an ion beam induced charge, Journal of Applied Physics , Vol. 72, pp. 2097-2104, 1992.
  9. V. Rigato, L. Giuntini, E. Vittone, Editorial of the Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Microprobe Technology and Applications (ICNMTA2014) and of the Workshop on Proton Beam Writing, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B, Volume 348, 1 April 2015, 1.

IBIC Simulation Tool

The IBIC Simulation Tool (IST) is a software with graphical user interface for the Monte Carlo simulation of 1-dimensional IBIC experiments.
All the information and the beta version of the software are currently available here, with tutorial examples.

IBIC Tutorial Examples

The charge induction mechanism and the interpretation of IBIC experiments are illustrated in several examples developed by the IBIC Simulation Tool.

Basic papers to understand IBIC

  • W. Shockley, "Currents to Conductors Induced by a Moving Point Charge", J. Appl. Phys. 9, 635 (1938),
  • S. Ramo, "Currents Induced by Electron Motion", Proceedings of the I.R.E. (1939), 584
  • C.K. Jen, "On the induced current and energy balance in electronics" Proceedings of the I.R.E. (1941), 345.
  • J.B. Gunn, "A general expression for electrostatic inductionand its application to semiconductor devices", Solid State Electronics, Pergamon Press 1964, vol7, p.739-742
  • T.H. Prettyman, "Theoretical framework for mapping pulse shapes in semiconductor radiation detectors", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 428 (1999) 72-80
  • M.B.H.Breese, E. Vittone, G. Vizkelethy, P.J. Sellin, "A review of ion beam induced charge microscopy",Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 264 (2007) 345-360
  • E. Vittone, "Semiconductor Characterization by Scanning Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) Microscopy" a spotlight paper of ISRN Materials Science, vol. 2013, Article ID 637608,
  • E. Vittone, Z. Pastuovic, M.B.H. Breese, J. Garcia Lopez, M. Jaksic, J. Raisanen, R. Siegele, A. Simon, G. Vizkelethy, "Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment ", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 372 (2016) 128–142.

Talks, Posters, Awards

15th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications (ICNMTA2016)
31 July - 05 August 2016, IMP-CAS, Lanzhou, China
Ettore Vittone
"Methodology to analyze the charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor diodes"
Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES2016)
19-24 June 2016, Loughborough University, UK
Ettore Vittone
"Modeling of charge collection efficiency degradation in semiconductor devices induced by MeV ion beam irradiation"
IAEA Technical Meeting on Formulating strategies for keeping accelerator based technologies at the forefront of scientific endeavours,
19-23 October 2015, Instituto Superior Técnico Lisbon (Bobadela), Portugal
Ettore Vittone, Mark Breese
"Functional characterization of electronic materials and devices using MeV ion beams"
22nd conference on Ion Beam Analysis 2015 (IBA2015)
14-19 June 2015, Opatja, Croatia
Ettore Vittone
"A new protocol to evaluate the charge collection efficiency degradation in semiconductor devices induced by MeV ions "
3rd IAEA Research Coordination Meeting F11016
Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modelling of radiation induced defects in semiconductors and insulators
IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 10-13 November 2014
Ettore Vittone
"Analysis of the charge collection efficiency degradation in irradiated semiconductor diodes"
IBA 2013: 21th International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis
Seattle, June 23-28, 2013

Award winner:

Jacopo Forneris submitting the paper "A Monte Carlo software for the 1-dimensional simulation of IBIC experiments" has been awarded with the Elsevier "Young Researcher for Best Manuscript" prize.
2nd IAEA Research Coordination Meeting F11016
Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modelling of radiation induced defects in semiconductors and insulators
IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 13-17 May 2013
Ettore Vittone
"Modelling and Validation of Ion Beam Induced Damage in Semiconductors"
Joint ICTP-IAEA Workshop on Physics of Radiation Effect and its Simulation for Non-Metallic Condensed Matter”,
Trieste, 13-24 August 2012,
Ettore Vittone
"1 An overview of the electronics properties of semiconductor and insulator materials"
"2 Theory of the Ion Beam Induced Charge Technique (IBIC)"
"3 3 Modeling of damage in ion irradiated semiconductors"
13th international conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications (ICNMTA2012),
22.7.2012, Lisbon, Portugal.
Ettore Vittone
"Theory and practice of Materials Analysis for Microelectronics with a nuclear microprobe"
2nd RBI Detector Workshop
"Diamond Detectors - Development and Applications" Plitvice Lakes National Park, Croatia, 7-10 May 2012
Jacopo Forneris
"Sharing of anomalous polarity pulses in a ion-beam-micromachined multi-electrode diamond detector"
Paolo Olivero
"Applications of Ion Microbeam Lithography in Diamond"
Federico Picollo
"Focused ion Beam Fabrication of a diamond detector with buried graphitic electrodes"
Ettore Vittone
"Characterization of electronic properties in detectors by IBIC"
1st IAEA Research Coordination Meeting F11016
Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modelling of radiation induced defects in semiconductors and insulators
IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 19-23 March 2012
Ettore Vittone
"Modelling and Validation of Ion Beam Induced Damage in Semiconductors"
IAEA Technical Meeting on Radiation Induced Defects in Semiconductors and Insulators
IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, 4-8 July 2011
Ettore Vittone
"IBIC experiments and modelling to evaluate the degradation of the electronic properties of semiconductor materials and devices subjected to radiation damage"
ICNMTA 2010: 12th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications Leipzig, July 26-30, 2010

Honourable Mention:

Paolo Olivero, Jacopo Forneris, Milko Jaksic, Federico Picollo, Zeljko Pastuovic, Natko Skukan, Ettore Vittone,
Focused ion beam fabrication and IBIC characterization of a diamond detector with buried electrodes
ICNMTA 2008: 11th International Conference on Nuclear Microprobe Technology and Applications
Debrecen, July 20-25, 2008

Award winner:

Milko Jaksic, Zeljko Pastuovic, Natko Skukan, Mladen Bogovac, Paolo Olivero, Ettore Vittone
IBIC and Mondrian

Theses

Publications

  1. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone, M. Boero, P. Polesello, S. Galassini, M. Jaksic, S. Fazinic, I. Bogdanovic IBIC investigations on CVD diamond Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 100 (1995) 133-140
  2. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, M. Boero, E. Vittone, P. Polesello Characterization of CVD diamond films by nuclear techniques with a particles Diamond and Related Materials 4 (1995) 517-519
  3. M. Jaksic, I. Bogdanovic, M. Bogovac, S. Fazinic, S. Galassini, K. Kovacevic, C. Manfredotti, E.Vittone Testing of radiation detectors by IBIC imaging Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 113 (1996) 378
  4. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone, M. Boero, P. Polesello, S. Galassini, M. Jaksic, S. Fazinic, I. Bogdanovic Study of physical and chemical inhomogeneities in semiconducting and insulating materials by a combined use of micro PIXE and micro IBIC Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 109/110 (1996) 555-562
  5. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone, P. Polesello, M. Jaksic, S. Fazinic, I. Bodganovic Characterization of CVD diamond by proton microbeam Conference Proceedings, Vol. 52 of Italian Physical Society, Proceedings of EURODIAMOND '96, ed. C.Manfredotti, E.Vittone, Torino 17-20 January 1996, p.59-70
  6. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone, P. Polesello, F. Wang, A study of polycristalline CVD diamond by nuclear techniques Physica Status Solidi A 154 (1996) 327-350>
  7. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone, M. Boero, P. Polesello, S. Galassini, M. Jaksic, S. Fazinic, I. Bogdanovic, Study of physical and chemical inhomogeneities in semiconducting and insulating materials by a combined use of micro PIXE and micro IBIC Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 109/110 (1996) 555-562
  8. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, P. Polesello, P. P. Trapani, E. Vittone, M. Jaksic, S. Fazinic, I. Bodganovic Investigation on the electric field profile in CdTe by ion beam induced current Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A 380 (1996) 136
  9. I. Bogdanovic, S. Fazinic, M. Jaksic, T. Tadic, C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone Imaging of radiation detectors properties by IBIC Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 130 (1997) 513-517
  10. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, K. Mirri, P. Polesello, E. Vittone, M. Jaksic, T. Tadic, I. Bodganovic, V. Valkovic, T. Pochet A micro-IBIC comparison between natural and CVD diamond Diamond and Related Materials 6(2-4) (1997) 320-324
  11. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, G. Mucera, A. Lo Giudice, P. Polesello, E. Vittone, Y. A. Mankelevich, N. V. Suetin Growth and characterisation of CVD diamond wires for X-ray detection Diamond and Related Materials 6 (1997) 1051-1056
  12. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, P. Polesello, E. Vittone, P. Rossi, G. Egeni, V. Rudello, I. Bogdanovic, M. Jaksic, V. Valkovic Proton microbeam investigations on electrical properties of natural and CVD diamond Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 130 (1997) 491-497
  13. F. Cervellera, C. Donolato, G. P. Egeni, G. Fortuna, R. Nipoti, P. Polesello, P. Rossi, V. Rudello, E. Vittone, M. Viviani The Legnaro proton microprobe in low current experiments Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 130 (1997) 25-30
  14. C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, P. Polesello, F. Fizzotti, M. Jaksic, I. Bodganovic, V. Valkovic Scanning Ion beam microscopy - a new tool for mapping transport properties of semiconductor nuclear detectors CP392, Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, J.L. Duggan and I.L. Morgan eds., AIP Press, New York (1997) 705-708
  15. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, P. Muzzani, P. Polesello, E. Vittone Effects of light on the performances of CVD diamond nuclear detector Diamond Based Composites, M. A. Prelas et al. (ed.), NATO ASI Series, 38 (1997) Kluwer Academic Publishers (NL), p. 269-275
  16. F. Nava, P. Vanni, C. Canali, C. Manfredotti, P. Polesello, E. Vittone, G. Egeni, V. Rudello Analysis of Uniformity of as Prepared and Irradiated S.I. GaAs Radiation Detectors Presented at IEEE - Nuclear Science Symposium 1997 - Albuquerque (USA), 9-15 November 1997, to be published on IEEE - NSS97 Conference Records
  17. C. Manfredotti, G. Apostolo, A. Lo Giudice, P. Polesello, G. Cinque, M. Truccato, E. Vittone, G. Egeni, V. Rudello, P. Rossi Ion Beam Induced Luminescence and Charge Collection in diamond Diamond and Related Materials 7 (1998) 742-747
  18. C. Manfredotti, G. Apostolo, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, M. Morando, R. Pignolo, P. Polesello, M. Truccato, E. Vittone, U.Nastasi CVD diamond tips as nuclear and x-ray detectors Diamond and Related Materials, 7 (1998), 523-527
  19. F. Nava, P. Vanni, C. Canali, G. Apostolo, C. Manfredotti, P. Polesello, E. Vittone Analysis of Uniformity of as Prepared and Irradiated S.I. GaAs Radiation Detectors IEEE Transaction on nuclear Science 45,3 (1998) 609-616
  20. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, P. Polesello, E. Vittone, M. Truccato, A. LoGiudice, M. Jaksic, P. Rossi IBIC and IBIL microscopy applied to advanced semiconductor materials Nuclear Instruments And Methods In Physics Research B 136-138 (1998) 1333-1339
  21. C. Manfredotti, P. Polesello, M. Truccato, E. Vittone, A. Lo Giudice, F. Fizzotti CVD diamond detectors Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 410 (1998) 96-98
  22. F. Nava, P. Vanni, U. Biggeri, E. Vittone, C. Lanzieri, G. Bertuccio, C. Canali Electric field and plasma effects on proton-irradiated GaAs detector performance Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 410 (1998) 68-73
  23. M. Jakšic, T. Tadic, I. Orlic, T. Osipowicz, E. Vittone, C. Manfredotti Imaging of charge collection properties in CVD diamond using high resolution IBIC with protons and alpha particles Diamond Films and Technology 8(5) (1998) 391-398
  24. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, P. Polesello, E. Vittone Lateral IBIC by Single Proton Counting on Diffusion/Depletion Regions: Theory and Experiment Proceedings of the 15th international Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, November 4-7, 1998, Denton, Texas, pp 1125-1128
  25. D. Bernardi, G. P. Egeni, F. Parere, M. Pegoraro, P. Rossi, V. Rudello, H. Somacal, E. Vittone, M. Viviani Focused microbeam single event with a scintillating foil trigger and magnetic blanking Nuclear Instruments And Methods In Physics Research B 152(2-3) (1999) 377-385
  26. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, P. Polesello, E. Vittone IBIC investigation on radiation induced effects in CVD and natural diamond Nuclear Instruments And Methods In Physics Research A 426 (1999) 156-163
  27. F. Nava, P. Vanni, C. Canali, E. Vittone, P. Polesello, U. Biggeri, C. Leroy Evidence for plasma effect on charge collection efficiency in proton irradiated GaAs detectors Nuclear Instruments And Methods In Physics Research A 426 (1999) 185-191
  28. E. Vittone, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, P. Polesello, C.Manfredotti A simulation of a CdTe gamma ray detector based on collection efficiency profiles as determined by lateral IBIC Nuclear Instruments And Methods In Physics Research A 428 (1999) 81-87
  29. E. Vittone, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, P. Polesello, C. Manfredotti Room temperature CVD diamond x-ray and charge particle microdetectors Nuclear Instruments And Methods In Physics Research A 428 (1999) 118-126
  30. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, P. Polesello, E. Vittone, R. R. Lu, M. Jaksic Ion Microbeam Analysis of CVD Diamond Diamond and Related Materials 8 (1999) 1597-1601
  31. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, P. Polesello, E. Vittone, M. Truccato, P. Rossi Ion beam induced luminescence maps in CVD diamond as obtained by coincidence measurements Diamond and Related Materials 8 (1999) 1592-1596
  32. E. Vittone, C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, K. Mirri, E. Gargioni, P. Polesello, A. Lo Giudice, S. Galassini, F. Nava, P. Vanni, P. Rossi IBIC analysis of gallium arsenide Schottky diodes Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 158 (1999) 470-475
  33. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Gargioni, R. R. Lu, P. Polesello, A. Lo Giudice, E. Vittone, S. Galassini, M.Jaksic Evaluation of the diffusion length in silicon diodes by means of the lateral IBIC technique Nuclear instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 158 (1999) 476-480
  34. E. Vittone, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini, C. Manfredotti Theory of Ion beam Induced Charge Collection based on the extended Shockley-Ramo Theorem Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 161-163(1-4) (2000) 446-451
  35. C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini, F. Fizzotti, G. Dinca, V. Ralchenko, S. V. Nistor Ionoluminescence in CVD diamond and in cubic boron nitride Diamond and Related Materials 10 (2001) 568-573
  36. E. Vittone, A. Lo Giudice, C. Manfredotti, G. Egeni, V. Rudello, P. Rossi, G. Gennaro, G. Pratesi, M. Corazza Light detection with spectral analysis at the Legnaro Nuclear Microprobe: applications in material and earth sciences Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 181 (2001) 134-139
  37. C. Manfredotti, A. Lo Giudice, C. Ricciardi, C. Paolini, E. Massa, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone CVD diamond microdosimeters Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 458(1-2) (2001) 360-361
  38. E. Vittone, C. Ricciardi, A. Lo Giudice, F. Fizzotti, C. Manfredotti, G. Egeni, V. Rudello Micro-IBICC and micro-IL analysis of CVD diamond microdosimeters Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 181 (2001) 349-353
  39. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini, E. Vittone, F. Nava Investigation of 4H SiC Schottky diodes by ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique Applied Surface Science 184(1-4) (2001) 448-454
  40. P. Rossi, C. Di Maggio, G. P. Egeni, A. Galligioni, G. Gennaro, L. Giacomelli, A. Lo Giudice, M. Pegoraro, L. Pescarini, V.Rudello and E. Vittone Cytological and histological structures identification with the technique IBIL in elemental microanalysis Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 181 (2001) 437-442
  41. R. R. Lu, C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone, M. Jaksic Study of proton irradiation induced CVD diamond priming by lateral micro-ion beam induced charge technique Materials Research Bulletin 36(1-2) (2001) 47-55
  42. M. Jaksic, Z. Bosnjak, D. Gracin, Z. Medunic, Z. Pastuovic, E. Vittone, F. Nava Characterisation of SiC by IBIC and other IBA techniques Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 188(1-4) (2002) 130-134
  43. C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini Effects of light on the "primed" state of CVD diamond nuclear detectors Diamond & Related Materials 11 (2002) 446-450
  44. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini, E. Vittone, R. Lu Homogeneity of CVD diamond detectors in tracking applications Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 187(4) (2002) 566-578
  45. E. Vittone, C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, A. Lorenzi, S. Galassini, M. Jaksic Measurements of charge collection profiles in virgin and strongly irradiated silicon diodes by means of the micro IBICC technique Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476(3) (2002) 607-613
  46. E. Vittone, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini, F. Fizzotti, C. Manfredotti R. Barrett Imaging of charge collection properties of a CVD diamond detector using x-ray induced current microscopy Diamond and Related Materials 11(8) (2002) 1472-1478
  47. R. Lu, C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, E. Vittone, A. Logiudice Lateral micro-ion beam induced charge characterization of chemical vapor deposition diamond Materials Science and Engineering B 90(1-2) (2002) 191-195
  48. P. Rossi, E. Vittone, B. L. Doyle, R. Cherubini, A. Battistella, G. Gennaro, L. Giacomelli, A. Lo Giudice, C. Manfredotti, D. Zafiropoulos, A new approach to single-cell irradiation Radiation Research 158 (3) (2002) 378-379
  49. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini, P. Olivero, E. Vittone Blue Light sensitization of CVD diamond detectors Diamond and Related Materials 12 (2003) 662-666
  50. C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, C. Paolini, A. Lo Giudice, M. Jaksic, R. Barrett Investigation of 4H SiC Schottky diodes by ion and x-ray micro beam induced charge collection techniques Diamond and Related Materials 12 (2003) 667-671
  51. F. Nava, E. Vittone, P. Vanni, G. Verzellesi, P. G. Fuochi, C. Lanzieri, M. Glaser Radiation tolerance of epitaxial silicon carbide detectors for electrons, protons and gamma-rays Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 505(3) (2003) 645-655
  52. E. Vittone, A. Lo Giudice, C. Paolini, P. Olivero, C. Manfredotti, R. Barrett, V. Rigato Ion and X-Ray micro-beam induced charge collection and their applications in CVD diamond detector characterisation Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 210 (2003) 159-163
  53. P. Rossi, B. L. Doyle, J. C. Banks, A. Battistella, G. Gennaro, F. D. McDaniel, M. Mellon, E. Vittone, G. Vizkelethy, N. Wing Ion photon emission microscopy Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 210 (2003) 123-128
  54. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, M. Jaksic, Z. Pastuovic, C. Paolini, P. Olivero, E. Vittone Time-resolved ion beam-induced charge collection measurement of minority carrier lifetime in semiconductor power devices by using Gunn's theorem Materials Science and Engineering B 102(1-3) (2003) 193-197
  55. F. Nava, G. Wagner, C. Lanzieri, P. Vanni, E. Vittone Investigation of Ni/4H-SiC diodes as radiation detectors with low doped n-type 4H-SiC epilayers Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 510(3) (2003) 273-280
  56. F. Nava, G. Wagner, C. Lanzieri, P. Vanni, E. Vittone Radiation tolerance of epitaxial silicon carbide detectors for electrons and gamma-rays Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 514(1-3) (2003) 126-134
  57. E.Vittone, Theory of ion beam induced charge measurement in semiconductor detectives based on the Gunn's theorem, Nuclear Inst. and Methods in Physics Research B, Vol. 219-220C pp 1043-1050
  58. P. Olivero, C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, F. Fizzotti, C. Paolini, A. Lo Giudice, R. Barrett, R. Tucoulou Investigation of chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors by X-ray micro-beam induced current and X-ray micro-beam induced luminescence techniques Spectrochimica Acta Part B 59 (2004) 1565–1573
  59. G. Bertuccio, S. Binetti, S. Caccia, R. Casiraghi, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, C. Lanzieri, A. Le Donne, F. Nava, S. Pizzini, L. Rigutti, G. Verzellesi, E. Vittone Silicon Carbide for Alpha, Beta, Ion and Soft X-Ray High Performance Detectors Materials Science Forum 483-485 (2005) 1015-1020
  60. A. Lo Giudice, P. Olivero, F. Fizzotti, C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, S. Bianco, G. Bertuccio, R. Casiraghi, M. Jaksic Study of ion induced damage in 4H-SiC Materials Science Forum 483-485 (2005) 389-392
  61. E. Vittone, P. Olivero, F. Nava, C. Manfredotti, A. Lo Giudice, F. Fizzotti, G. Egeni Lateral IBIC analysis of GaAs Schottky diodes Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 231 (2005) 513–517
  62. E. Vittone, V. Rigato, P. Olivero, F. Nava, C. Manfredotti, A. Lo Giudice, Y. Garino, F. Fizzotti Temperature dependent IBIC study of 4H–SiC Schottky diodes Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 231 (2005) 491–496
  63. C. Manfredotti, A. Lo Giudice, F. Fasolo, E. Vittone, C. Paolini, F. Fizzotti, A. Zanini, G. Wagner, C. Lanzieri SiC detectors for neutron monitoring Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 552 (2005) 131–137
  64. C. Manfredotti CVD diamond detectors for nuclear and dosimetric applications Diamond & Related Materials 14 (2005) 531–540
  65. A. Balducci, M. Jaksic, A. Lo Giudice, C. Manfredotti, M. Marinelli, S. Medunic, G. Pucella, G. Verona-Rinati Recent IBIC measurements on epitaxial CVD diamond Diamond & Related Materials 14 (2005) 1988–1991
  66. A. Lo Giudice, F. Fizzotti, C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, F. Nava Average energy dissipated by mega-electron-volt hydrogen and helium ions per electron-hole pair generation in 4H-SiC Applied Physics Letters 87 (2005) 22210
  67. A. Lo Giudice, Y. Garino, C. Manfredotti, V. Rigato, E. Vittone Angle resolved IBIC analysis of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 249 (2006) 213–216
  68. Y. Garino, F. Fizzotti, A. Lo Giudice, E. Vittone, C. Manfredotti The primed state of CVD diamond under blue light illumination Diamond & Related Materials 15 (2006) 735 – 738
  69. C. Manfredotti, A. Lo Giudice, E. Vittone, F. Fizzotti, Y. Garino, E. Pace Memory effects in CVD diamond Diamond & Related Materials 15 (2006) 1467 – 1471
  70. C. Manfredotti, F. Fizzotti, Y. Garino The primed state of CVD diamond under blue light illumination Diamond & Related Materials 15 (2006) 1362–1368
  71. C. Manfredotti, M. Jaksic, S. Medunic, A. Lo Giudice, Y. Garino, E. Colombo, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, G. Verona-Rinati Ion Beam Induced Charge characterization of epitaxial single crystal CVD diamond,Diamond & Related Materials 16 (2007) 940–943
  72. F. Fizzotti, E. Colombo, A. Lo Giudice, C. Manfredotti, Z. Medunic, M. Jakšic, E. Vittone "Measurement of charge collection profiles in irradiated silicon diodes by lateral IBIC technique Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 260 (2007) 259–263
  73. M. B. H. Breese, E. Vittone, G. Vizkelethy, P.J. Sellin A review of ion beam induced charge microscopy Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 264 (2007) 345–360
  74. A. Lo Giudice, F. Fasolo, E. Durisi, C. Manfredotti, E. Vittone, F. Fizzotti, A. Zanini, G. Rosi Performances of 4H-SiC Schottky diodes as neutron detectors Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 583 (2007) 177–180
  75. E. Colombo, S. Calusi, R. Cossio, L. Giuntini, A. Lo Giudice, P. A. Mandò, C. Manfredotti, M. Massi, F. A. Mirto, E. Vittone, Recent developments of ion beam induced luminescence at the external scanning microbeam facility of the LABEC Laboratory in Florence, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266 (2008) 1527–1532.
  76. S. Calusi, E. Colombo, L. Giuntini, A. Lo Giudice, P. A. Mandò, C. Manfredotti, M. Massi, G. Pratesi, E. Vittone The new ionoluminescence apparatus at the LABEC external microbeam facility", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266 (2008) 2306–2310.
  77. E.Vittone, Z. Pastuovic, P. Olivero, C.Manfredotti, M. Jakšic, A. Lo Giudice, F.Fizzotti, E. Colombo Semiconductor characterization by scanning ion beam induced charge (IBIC) microscopy, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 266 (2008) 1312–1318.
  78. F. Nava, G. Bertuccio, A. Cavallini, E. Vittone Silicon carbide and its use as radiation detector material, Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 (2008) 102001
  79. E. Colombo, A. Bosio, S. Calusi, L. Giuntini, A. Lo Giudice, C. Manfredotti, M. Massi, P. Olivero, A. Romeo, N. Romeo, E. Vittone IBIC analysis of CdTe/CdS solar cells Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(12-13) (2009) 2181-2184
  80. E. Vittone, N. Skukan, Z. Pastuovic´, P. Olivero, M. Jaksic, Charge collection efficiency mapping of interdigitated 4H–SiC detectors , Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(12-13) (2009) 2197-2202
  81. A. Lo Giudice, P. Olivero, C. Manfredotti, M. Marinelli, E. Milani, F. Picollo, G. Prestopino, A. Re, V. Rigato, C. Verona, G. Verona-Rinati, E. Vittone Lateral IBIC characterization of single crystal synthetic diamond detectors Physica Status Solidi Rapid Research Letters 5 (2011) 80-82
  82. Z. Pastuovic, E. Vittone, I. Capan, M. Jakšic Probability of divacancy trap production in silicon diodes exposed to focused ion beam irradiation Applied Physics Letters 98 (2011) 092101
  83. P. Olivero, J. Forneris, M. Jakšic, Z. Pastuovic, F. Picollo, N. Skukan, E. Vittone Focused ion beam fabrication and IBIC characterization of a diamond detector with buried electrodes Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 269 (2011) 2340-2344
  84. P. Olivero, J. Forneris, P. Gamarra, M. Jakšic, A. Lo Giudice, C. Manfredotti, Z. Pastuovic, N. Skukan, E. Vittone Monte Carlo analysis of a lateral IBIC experiment on a 4H-SiC Schottky diode Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 269 (2011) 2350-2354
  85. J. Forneris, V. Grilj, M. Jakšic, A. Lo Giudice, P. Olivero, F. Picollo, N. Skukan, C. Verona, G. Verona-Rinati, E. Vittone, "IBIC characterization of an ion-beam-micromachined multi-electrode diamond detector" Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 306 (2013) 181–185.
  86. J. Forneris, D.N. Jamieson, G. Giacomini, C. Yang, E. Vittone, "Modeling of ion beam induced charge sharing experiments for the design of high resolution position sensitive detectors" Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 306 (2013) 169–175.
  87. J. Forneris, V. Grilj, M. Jaksic, P. Olivero, F. Picollo, N. Skukan, C. Verona, G. Verona-Rinati, E. Vittone, "Measurement and modelling of anomalous polarity pulses in a multi-electrode diamond detector" EuroPhysics Letters, 104 (2013) 28005; doi: 10.1209/0295-5075/104/28005
  88. Z. Pastuovic´, I. Capan, R. Siegele, R. Jacimovic´, J. Forneris, D.D. Cohen, E. Vittone, Generation of vacancy cluster-related defects during single MeV silicon ion implantation of silicon Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 332 298-302(2014).
  89. J. Forneris, M. Jaksic´, Z. Pastuovic´, E. Vittone, A Monte Carlo software for the 1-dimensional simulation of IBIC experiments Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 332 257-260(2014).
  90. J. Forneris, A. Lo Giudice, P. Olivero, F. Picollo, A. Re, Marco Marinelli, F. Pompili, C. Verona, G. Verona Rinati, M. Benetti, D. Cannata, F. Di Pietrantonio A 3-dimensional interdigitated electrode geometry for the enhancement of charge collection efficiency in diamond detectors Europhysics Letters 108, 18001 (2014) .
  91. Nicolo Barbero, Jacopo Forneris, Veljko Grilj, Milko Jakšic´, Jyrki Raisanen, Aliz Simon, Natko Skukan, Ettore Vittone, "Degradation of the charge collection efficiency of an n-type Fz silicon diode subjected to MeV proton irradiation", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 348: 260-264 (2015)
  92. Z. Pastuovic´, I. Capan, D. Cohen, J. Forneris, N. Iwamoto, T. Ohshima, R. Siegele, N. Hoshino, H. Tsuchida, "Radiation hardness of n-type SiC Schottky barrier diodes irradiated with MeV He ion microbeam", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 348 233-239 (2015)
  93. J. Garcia Lopez, M.C. Jimenez-Ramos, M. Rodriguez-Ramos, J. Forneris, J. Ceballos, "An upgraded drift–diffusion model for evaluating the carrier lifetimes in radiation-damaged semiconductor detectors", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 371 (2016) 294–297
  94. E. Vittone, Z. Pastuovic, M.B.H. Breese, J. Garcia Lopez, M. Jaksic, J. Raisanen, R. Siegele, A. Simon, G. Vizkelethy, "Charge collection efficiency degradation induced by MeV ions in semiconductor devices: Model and experiment ", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 372 (2016) 128–142
  95. E. Vittone, A. Simon, M.B.H. Breese, "Papers arising from IAEA Coordinated Research Project ‘‘Utilization of ion accelerators for studying and modelling of radiation induced defects in semiconductors and insulators” (F11016)", Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 372 (2016) 127